Analysis of false answers:
The motherboard is used to connect all the electronic components of a computer
RAM stores temporary software and data used by the processor. It has a reduced storage capacity (4 to 6 GB per barette). Above all, it is volatile which means that it is emptied as soon as it is no longer supplied with electricity.
The processor executes the programs by performing simple arithmetic and logical operations.
If you want to know more about the hardware of a computer, you can read the course below:
The hardware components of a computer
A computer is made up of hardware and software components.
Hardware elements are electronic components. They are grouped into 4 categories
The central unit which includes the central processor and the central memory
The motherboard that connects the different components
Devices that allow the computer to receive or send data to the outside world
Expansion cards that give new features to the computer.
The central unit
The words “central unit” can be used to designate two things:
in common parlance, the central unit is the box in which the electronic components are grouped together
in computing, the central unit designates the heart of the computer ie the processor and the central memory (RAM). the CPU processes the programs and data that come from the input devices.
The processor is the component that runs the programs. It can only perform very simple operations such as storing and reading data in RAM and performing arithmetic operations (+, -, *, /) and logic (and or).
All the tasks performed by the processor are broken down into arithmetic and logical operations. The more complex a task, the more operations it requires, and the longer it takes to complete (for example compressing a file or computing the shape of an object)
The power of a process is the speed at which it performs the operations. This power called frequency is measured in hertz (Hz). The higher the frequency, the more operations a process can do per second, and so it performs complex tasks quickly. Currently, the frequency of a processor is about 3 or 4 GigaHertz
Some computers are equipped with multiple processors to go even faster. We speak of multicore processor or multiprocessor architecture.
The living memory
RAM is also called RAM or RAM (Random Access Memory). It stores the programs and data that are being processed by the processor.
The RAM is volatile, ie its contents are erased as soon as it is no longer supplied with electricity.
RAM has a storage capacity measured in bytes (o). Currently, the RAM barrettes have a capacity of 1 to 4 GigaBytes
In order to execute a task, the program and associated data must be “loaded” into RAM. So the more programs you open, the more you have to “load” information into RAM. By increasing the size of the RAM, you increase the number of programs that you can use at the same time
II. The motherboard
The motherboard makes it possible to connect all the other components together. All other components are plugged into the motherboard. It manages the transfer of information between each component thanks to an electrical wiring called “bus”.
III. The peripherals
Peripherals are components that allow communication between the CPU and the outside world.
Devices can be classified according to whether they are input or output or both:
Input devices are used to send information to the central unit. These are, for example, the keyboard, the mouse, the microphone, the scanner …
The output devices receive information from the central unit and communicate it to the outside: the screen, the printer, the speakers …
The input/output devices allow communication in both directions: the hard disk, modem, webcam equipped with a microphone …
Devices are also classified according to whether they are inside the box (internal devices) or outside (external devices)
One of the most important peripherals is the hard drive.
A hard disk is a memory space. Unlike RAM, data is stored even when the hard drive is no longer powered. The memory space is measured in octet (o). Where memory sticks have a capacity of 2 to 6 GB, hard drives have a capacity of several hundred GB to see for bigger 1 Terra Otet (One To = 1000 GB). Hard drives can have two sizes: 3.5 inches or 2.5 inches. They can be inside the computer or plugged into an external box that will be connected to the computer with a USB cable. The 2.5-inch hard drives have the advantage of consuming less electricity which allows to feed them only with the USB cable. They are logically more expensive.
The operation of hard disks and its characteristics depend on its type: traditional or SSD
- The operation of traditional hard disks
A traditional hard disk consists of a set of disks and a read head. The player reads or writes on the discs, but since it is partly fixed, it can not access all the discs. That’s why the discs turn on their own.
This system has two major disadvantages. First of all, running a disc consumes a lot of energy. This poses a problem for the autonomy of laptops. Then spinning a disc takes a lot of time. To overcome this problem we invented dequeues that rotate faster but they cost much more and usually make more noise.
Another problem is the fragmentation of information. The disks are composed of a multitude of small blocks (clusters). When you save a file to the hard disk, the read head writes on clusters that are not necessarily next to each other. Suddenly to read the file the disks must turn to make available to the read head good clusters. So the more files are saved on remote clusters the more the disks are spinning. You understand that the more the disks have to run, the longer the access time to the file. It is for this reason that there is software to group the clusters which concern an identical file. These are the defragmenters.
To overcome these problems, it was invented a new type of hard drive: SSDs
- The operation of SSDs
SSDs work like SD or Flashcards. Everything is electronic, so there is no disc that turns. Consumption is low and access times are very fast. Unfortunately, in 2013 these hard drives still have a reduced storage capacity (256 GB for larger), they are still expensive and especially since they have a much shorter life than traditional hard drives.
IV. Expansion Cards
Expansion cards add capabilities or features to a computer. The most common are:
the network card that will connect the computer to a network. The speed of the network will depend on its bandwidth, that is to say, the number of bytes that can circulate on the network in 1 second.
the graphics card that will allow the computer to display images of more or less good quality
the sound card that will allow the computer to emit sound through speakers